In her portfolio reflection journal, B5 trainee described a specific lesson and how it went. I failed to raise their interests and attract their attention. I was not successful in delivering the lesson, maybe because I was afraid that day and not well prepared. They can show evidence of how and why their actions worked or did not work well for their pupils or class. They also include sections where trainees examine what went well and difficult, and what factors played a role in the situation.
Hence, we can say that trainees tend to focus on their teaching practices and how to improve them by writing their own reflective comments in the portfolio. Trainees were reassured that their identity would be kept anonymous. Data collected from the portfolio process and experience is presented in table 1 below with statistics of frequencies, mean values, and standard deviations. According to the findings presented in the table above, the portfolio development by trainees in the PTC contributed to raise their motivation and interest.
Most of the trainees, about Also, trainees noted that portfolio experience encouraged them to discuss their teaching performances with their supervisors and training teachers. Second, most of the respondents underlined that through portfolio development, they learned how to reflect on their learning and teaching and develop the reflective skills In other words, their reflections helped them to gain deep understanding of their learning experiences. Fewer trainees, approximately In this case; trainees highlight the need for learning how to reflect, a research conducted by Al-Issa and Al-Bulushi  suggests for trainers some approaches and strategies to help trainees develop as reflective teachers.
Another valuable feature highlighted by the majority of trainees They noted that it is a tool for supporting teacher learning over time; i. However, a relatively few trainees disagreed with this reality. Trainees allude that by self-evaluating their teaching performances, they can improve their teaching skills. In sum, most responses indicate that trainees unanimously find the portfolio a useful tool for professional development, supporting self-reflection and raising awareness of their strengths and weaknesses in teaching.
It is important to recall that the portfolio as a tool for learning and teaching is new to all participants in this study; thus the results are partly due to their lack of experience. The analysis of the portfolios also revealed that through the process of developing portfolios, trainees described what they have performed,the areas they had developed, how they dealt with the different teaching situations and experiences, and what they learned from them. All these achievements contributed to structuring their practical knowledge to improvetheir performance in teaching and gain professionalism.
The results of this study correlate with many other research findings which focus on the importance of using portfolios in teacher education.
Portfolios, as Nichol and Milligan  assert, involve student teachers in the direct monitoring and regulation of their own learning as they reflect on their achievements making judgements about the quality of their work in relation to specific professional standards. Shulman  demonstrates that teaching portfolios are carefully selected collections of coached and mentored accomplishments verified by samples of student work and fully realized only through reflective writing, deliberation, and serious conversation.
Trainees would better have enough opportunities and time to apply what they have learned in the PTC, so that they can have follow-up information on portfolio writing and have adequate mentoring or supervision during portfolio development. Also, they can improve reflection and precisely undertake the appropriate action in order to make them link between the relevant theory and practice. Through workshops, trainees examine and discuss materials that will eventually be included in their teaching portfolios. Supervisors too are involved in the process of constructing the portfolio with their trainees as well as training teachers would play an active role in the process and product of portfolio development and assessment.
Another implication is the integration of teaching portfolios in teacher education programmes to assess and promote learning and, even later, employment purposes.
Professional Development for Implementing Electronic Portfolios
It is important for the success of the portfolio introduction or implementation that supervisors give the trainees enough time to construct the portfolio and provide them with the appropriate constructive feedback otherwise trainees are likely to perceive it as ineffective. This research is delimited to English pre-service teacher education department. In order to obtain detailed results, the same study should be replicated with other pre- service teacher education institutions in Algeria in order to have deeper understanding of teaching portfolios and their contribution in promoting reflective practice and professionalism.
Edited by the Department of Training, References 1. Dewey, J. How We Think. Heath and Co,New York, Basic Books New York, Longayroux, D. Beijaard, and N. The portfolio as a tool for stimulating reflection by student teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol.
Constructing a Teaching Portfolio
Hismanoglu, M. Effective professional development strategies of English language teachers. Procedia Social and BehavioralSciences,Vol. Darling, L. Portfolio as practice: The narratives of emerging teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education,Vol. Darling-Hammond, L. Authentic assessment of teaching in context. Loughran, J. Teaching portfolios: A strategy for developing learning and teaching in preservice education. Lyons, N. Reflection in teaching: Can it be developmental? A portfolio perspective.
Teacher Education Quarterly, Vol. Zeichner, K. The teaching portfolio in US teacher education programs: What we know and what we need to know. Wolf, K. Teaching portfolios: Purposes and possibilities. Riggs, I. National Association of Secondary School Principals. Sarivan, L. The reflective teacher. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. Bala, S.
Digital portfolio and professional development of language teachers. Hauge, T. Portfolios and ICT as means of professional learning in teacher education. Studies in Educational Evaluation,Vol. Baris, M. E-portfolio in lifelong learning applications. Genc, Z.
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A reflection of preservice teachers on e-portfolio assessment. Gavori, E. Teacher training in the European higher education area: A look at the American model. Richards, J. Cambridge U, Cambridge, Foote, C. Teaching portfolio Implementing the teaching portfolio in introductory courses. Journal of Instructional Psychology,Vol.
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Probes can be used to: Analyze a student's statement, make a student aware of underlying assumptions, or justify or evaluate a statement. Instructor : What are some ways we might solve the energy crisis? Student : I would like to see a greater movement to peak-load pricing by utility companies. Instructor: What assumptions are you making about consumer behavior when you suggest that solution? Help students deduce relationships. Instructors may ask students to judge the implications of their statements or to compare and contrast concepts.
Instructor : What are some advantages and disadvantages of having grades given in courses? Student 1 : Grades can be a motivator for people to learn. Student 2 : Too much pressure on grades causes some students to stop learning, freeze, go blank. Instructor : If both of those statements are true, what generalizations can you make about the relationship between motivation and learning? Have students clarify or elaborate on their comments by asking for more information. Instructor: Could you please develop your ideas further? Can you provide an example of that concept?
Student: It was obvious that the crew had gone insane. Instructor : What is the legal definition of insane? Student : It was a violation of due process. Instructor: Can you explain why? This technique is also used to shift attention to a new topic. Instructor: What does it mean to devalue the dollar? Student: Um—I'm not really sure, but doesn't it mean that, um, a dollar doesn't go as far as it used to? Does that mean it's devalued? Instructor: Well, let's talk a little bit about another concept, and that is inflation.
How does inflation affect your dollar? Strategies for responding to student questions There are many ways in which an instructor can respond to questions from students. Then proceed with one of the following strategies: Answer the question yourself. This strategy is best when you have little time remaining in class.
The disadvantage of this approach is that you do not encourage student-to-student interaction or independent learning. Redirect the question to the class. This strategy helps to encourage student-to-student interaction and to lessen reliance on the instructor for all information.
Attempt to help the student answer his own question. This may require prompting through reminders of pertinent previously learned information. Or this strategy may require you to ask the student a lower-level question or a related question to begin his thought process.
The advantage of this strategy, as in redirecting, is that the student may learn the process of searching for answers to his own questions rather than relying on the teacher. The risk is that the process can be embarrassing or so threatening that the student will be too intimidated to ask questions in the future. Obviously some human compassion is called for when using this strategy. Ask the student to stop after class to discuss the question.
This strategy is most appropriate when a student raises complicated, tangential questions or when a student is obviously the only one who does not understand a point and a simple answer does not clarify it for the student. Even in these situations there are risks in using this strategy.
The Teacher Portfolio: A Strategy for Professional Development and Evaluation -
Students may be intimidated from raising questions in class. The instructor may think that only the questioning student does not understand when actually a number of students are having the same problem. Refer the student to a resource where she can find the answer. Defer the question until a more appropriate time if the question is not connected to the material you're covering.
Be sure to note the question and the student, and to return to the question at a more appropriate time. Admit that you cannot answer the question and then select one of these strategies or others you find appropriate: Ask whether someone in the class can answer the question. Most times after class you should follow this with an attempt to determine whether the information provided was accurate or based on sound reasoning and credible sources.
Either propose a plan for obtaining evidence for answering the question or ask the students to suggest how the question could be investigated. If possible, suggest a resource where the student can find information. The resource may be written material, another faculty or staff member, a student, or someone from the community.
Volunteer to find the answer yourself and report back to the class. Make sure you actually do return with the answer if you choose this option. Strategies to use when students don't respond Redirect: When a student responds to a question, the instructor can ask another student to comment on his statement. One purpose of using this technique is to enable more students to participate. This strategy can also be used to allow a student to correct another student's incorrect statement or respond to another student's question.
Instructor: Ali, do you agree with Mark's comment? Instructor: From your experience, Aisha, does what Vito said seem true? Instructor: Li, can you give me an example of the concept that Pat mentioned? Rephrasing: This technique is used when a student provides an incorrect response or no response. Instead of telling the student she is incorrect or calling upon another student, the instructor can try one of three strategies: The instructor can try to reword the question to make it clearer.
Developing an Effective Teaching Portfolio
The question may have been poorly phrased. I nstructor : What is neurosis? The instructor can provide some information to help students come up with the answer. Instructor: How far has the ball fallen after 3 seconds? Student: I have no idea. Instructor : Let's break down the question, Ann. How do we measure distance? The instructor can break the question down into more manageable parts.
Instructor : What is the epidemiology of polio? Student : I'm not sure. Instructor : What does "epidemiology" mean? Using "wait time": One factor that can have powerful effects on student participation is the amount of time an instructor pauses between asking a question and doing something else calling on a student or rewording the question. Research on classroom questioning and information processing indicates that students need at least three seconds to comprehend a question, consider the available information, formulate an answer, and begin to respond.
In contrast, the same research established that, on average, a classroom teacher allows less than one second of wait-time. After teachers were trained to allow three to five seconds of wait-time the following significant changes in their classrooms occurred from Rowe, : The number of students who failed to respond when called on decreased.
Selecting the Contents
The number of unsolicited but appropriate responses increased. The length of student responses increased. The number of student statements where evidence was used to make inferences increased. The number of responses from students identified by the teacher as less able increased. The number of student-to-student interactions increased. The number of student questions increased.
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